In recent years, major multinational tobacco companies have taken new tobacco as their strategic focus and vigorously developed new tobacco products. Heat-not-burn products are a new type of tobacco product, which is characterized by “heating shredded tobacco or tobacco extracts instead of burning shredded tobacco”. The special heating source of the device heats the shredded tobacco in the cartridge to volatilize the nicotine and flavor in the shredded tobacco. Substances that produce smoke to meet the needs of smokers. Because of low-temperature heating, no combustion process is required, and compared with traditional cigarettes, it does not produce many harmful substances and has good harm reduction performance.
1. Smoke composition of traditional cigarettes
1.1 Harmful components of smoke
The tobacco in traditional cigarettes produces thousands of complex chemical components by itself or after being ignited and smoked, such as tar, nicotine, phenols, alcohols, aldehydes and many other toxic and carcinogenic substances, including tar, nicotine , CO, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and 3,4-benzopyrene (BaP) are extremely harmful to the human body. Some harmful components with strong toxicity, large release in mainstream smoke, and mature detection technology are in it.
1.2 Correlation between smoke toxicology indicators and harmful components of smoke
The technical staff analyzed the 5 toxicological indicators (MR value, SCE rate, micronucleus rate, cell death rate and passive smoking mouse death rate) and 5 chemical indicators (tar, nicotine, CO, TSNA and BaP) carried out correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that there is a certain correlation between the biological effects of cigarette smoke and the important harmful chemical components in the smoke. TSNA affects the MR value, SCE rate and cell death The most important factor of the rate (P<0.01), while the micronucleus rate and the acute mortality of passive smoking mice have no correlation with tar, nicotine, CO, TSNA, BaP (P>0.05). Therefore, the health hazards of smoking can be reduced by greatly reducing the TSNA content in cigarette smoke.
2. Smoke components of heat-not-burn tobacco products
Heat-not-burn tobacco products do not burn tobacco because they are heated, so that the types and release of chemical components in the aerosols produced are reduced. The main components are water, glycerin, nicotine and low content of potentially harmful components (HPHCs).
2.1 The chemical composition of aerosol of electric heat not burn cigarette
At present, the research on electric heating technology is the most extensive. Philip Morris Tobacco is the company that conducted the research and development of this technology earlier, represented by Accord and iQOS.
The technicians analyzed the Accord aerosol and 1R4F mainstream smoke obtained under the 3308 standard suction mode of the International Organization for Standardization (International Organization for Standardization, ISO). The content of most of the smoke components is quite different. From Table 2 and The results in Table 3 show that compared with 1R4, the content of harmful components in Accord aerosol is 80% lower than that in 1R4F on average. Among them, the content of aromatic amines, hydrogen cyanide, cadmium, phenol, cresol, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is reduced by 5% Above; Arsenic and gas phase components acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides are reduced by 90%-95%; dihydroxy phenolic compounds, isoprene and tobacco-specific nitrosamines are reduced by 80%～ 90%; the release of aldehydes (except formaldehyde), nicotine and tar is reduced by 70% to 80%; 5 components (water, glycerin, formaldehyde, 2-nitropropane and hexamethylenetetramine) in Accord aerosol The content of in is significantly higher than 1R4F, and the formaldehyde content in Accord aerosol is 2.4 times higher than that in 1R4F.